Wednesday, November 23. 2005
this question revolves around the morality of the proposition, not its practicality. it is known that the current level of scientific expertise results in many cases of cloning which are defective or unsuccessful. for the purposes of this enquiry, however, we should assume that the techniques of cloning are not in doubt. we are, therefore, looking forward to possible future-perhaps imminent- moral dilemmas which will face religions, humanists, the medical profession, politicians and of course the individual, once the appropriate techniques have been perfected.
now we must further distinguish between two types of cloning: therapeutic and reproductive. the former is predicated on healing disease and prolonging life. the latter is designed to create new life.
naturally there are longstanding prejudices against certain types of knowledge. superstition still plays a role, even in modern human affairs. for example vaccination against smallpox was introduced in russia during the period of catherine the great. it seemed incredible at the time that this technique might protect rather than infect, so the empress was one of the first to take the treatment herself. inspired by her example the court followed and the path to smallpox eradication had begun.
it seems , therefore, that the objections to therapeutic cloning probably fall into the category of outmoded superstition. it should , accordingly, be a simple step to concur with the propositions that life is precious and needs protection,particularly if this promotes the greatest happiness. if therapeutic cloning fulfills the above functions it must clearly be regarded as a useful and sophisticated weapon in humanity's arsenal for the battle against disease.
finally we move on to reproductive cloning.specifically we are referring to the reproductive cloning of humans.why should this be necessary? from a demographic point of view the planet is not notably short of human beings. why, therefore, shoud we wish to create more beyond those being conceived by natural purposes? furthermore, one could object that human life has a divine source, and that to usurp the divine function with a frankenstein-like act of substitute creation would be to offend against both moral and religious precepts.when man plays at being God, as with the unleashing of the terrible power of the atom bomb, unpredictable, uncontrollable and awesome forces may be unloosed upon the world.
one might also object that any human produced by cloning might prove to be a class apart, either through built -in superior intelligence and physique, or by expendability engendered through the sheer capacity to create infinite copies. in the first case we run the risk of a superclass of human taking control of our affairs, in the latter of producing human cannon fodder for unpleasnt tasks such as wars and fire fighting, or hazardous journeys such as deep sea exploration or space travel.
on the other hand, human reproductive cloning might be confined to the relatively benign activity of the fertilisation clinic, to improve the quality of life of otherwise barren or childless couples.
one thing is certain-science is like a genie escaped from its confining bottle. once out, it can never be forced back in and the bottle stopped. one cannot reverse scientific discovery. whatever the moral and rleigious rights or wrongs of the case, once cloning becomes standardly possible. it will never go away.
GM Ray Keene OBE
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ΠΠ°ΠΊ Π½Π΅ Π² ΡΠ°ΠΊΠΎΠΉ ΠΌΠ΅ΡΠ΅ Π²ΡΠΏΠ»Π°ΡΠΈΠ²Π°ΡΡ ΠΏΠΎ ΠΊΡΠ΅Π΄ΠΈΡΡ?
Π‘Π»ΡΡΠ°ΡΡΡΡ ΠΏΠ΅ΡΠ΅Π΄Π΅Π»ΠΊΠΈ Π² ΠΏΡΠ΅ΠΊΡΠ°ΡΠ½ΠΎΠΉ ΠΆΠΈΠ·Π½ΠΈ, ΠΊΠΎΠ³Π΄Π° ΠΏΠΎ Π½Π΅ΠΏΡΠ΅Π΄Π²ΠΈΠ΄Π΅Π½Π½ΡΠΌ ΠΏΡΠΈΡΠΈΠ½Π°ΠΌ ΡΡΡΠ³ΡΠ±Π»ΡΠ΅ΡΡΡ ΡΠΈΠ·ΠΈΡΠ΅ΡΠΊΠΎΠ΅ ΡΠΎΡΡΠΎΡΠ½ΠΈΠ΅.
Π ΡΠ΅Π·ΡΠ»ΡΡΠ°ΡΠ΅, Π³Π΄Π΅ ΡΠ°ΠΌ Π²ΡΠΏΠ»Π°ΡΠΈΠ²Π°ΡΡ ΡΡΡΠ°Π½ΠΎΠ²Π»Π΅Π½ΠΈΡ ΡΡΠΌΠΌΡ
ΠΏΠΎ ΠΊΡΠ΅Π΄ΠΈΡΡ. Π² ΡΠ°ΠΊΠΎΠΌ ΡΠ»ΡΡΠ°Π΅, Π»ΡΡΡΠ΅ ΡΠ°ΠΌΠΎΠΌΡ ΠΏΡΡΡΠΈΡΡΡ Π² Π±Π°Π½ΠΊ, ΡΠ΅ΠΌ
ΠΆΠ΄Π°ΡΡ, ΠΏΠΎΠΊΠ° ΠΎΠ½ Π½ΠΈΠΊΠ°ΠΊ Π½Π΅ ΠΏΠΎΠ΄Π°ΡΡ ΠΈΠ΅ΡΠ΅ΠΌΠΈΠ°Π΄Ρ Π² ΡΡΠΈΠ±ΡΠ½Π°Π».
ΠΡΡΡ Π½Π΅ΡΠΊΠΎΠ»ΡΠΊΠΎ Π²Π°ΡΠΈΠ°Π½ΡΠΎΠ² ΡΡΠΎΠ±Ρ,
ΡΡΠΎΠ±Ρ ΡΠ±Π°Π²ΠΈΡΡ Π²ΡΠΏΠ»Π°ΡΡ ΠΏΠΎ ΠΊΡΠ΅Π΄ΠΈΡΡ.
1. Π Π΅ΡΡΡΡΠΊΡΡΡΠΈΡΠΎΠ²Π°Π½ΠΈΠ΅
ΠΠ°ΠΈΠΌΠΎΠ΄Π°Π²Π΅Ρ ΠΈΠ΄Π΅Ρ Π²ΠΎΠ·ΡΠΌΠΈ ΡΡΡΡΠΏΠΊΠΈ, ΠΏΠΎ ΡΡΠ΅Π±ΠΎΠ²Π°Π½ΠΈΡ
Π·Π°Π΅ΠΌΡΠΈΠΊΠ°. ΠΠΎΠΆΠ½ΠΎ ΡΠΌΠ°Π»ΡΠ½ΡΡΡ ΠΏΡΠΎ ΡΠΎ, ΡΡΠΎΠ±Ρ ΠΏΡΠΈΡΠ°ΡΡΠΈΡΡ
ΠΌΠΎΠΌΠ΅Π½Ρ ΠΊΡΠ΅Π΄ΠΈΡΠ° Π²ΠΎΠ·ΡΠΌΠΈ Π΄Π»ΠΈΡΠ΅Π»ΡΠ½ΠΎΠ΅ Π²ΡΠ΅ΠΌΡ,
Π² ΡΠ΅Π·ΡΠ»ΡΡΠ°ΡΠ΅ ΡΠ΅Π³ΠΎ ΠΆΠ΅, ΡΠ½ΠΈΠ·ΠΈΡΡΡ Π΅ΠΆΠ΅ΠΌΠ΅ΡΡΡΠ½ΡΠΉ ΠΏΠ»Π°ΡΠ΅ΠΆ.
Π’Π°ΠΊΠΎΠΉ Π²Π°ΡΠΈΠ°Π½Ρ ΠΈΠ΄Π΅Π°Π»ΡΠ½ΡΠΉ Π² ΡΠΎΠΌ ΡΠ»ΡΡΠ°Π΅,
Π΅ΡΠ»ΠΈ Π±Π°Π½ΠΊ Π½Π΅ ΠΏΠΎΠΌΠ΅Π½ΡΠ΅Ρ %-ΡΡ ΡΡΠ°Π²ΠΊΡ Π½Π° ΠΏΡΠΎΡΡΠΆΠ΅Π½ΠΈΠΈ Π²ΡΠ΅Π³ΠΎ ΠΌΠΎΠΌΠ΅Π½Ρ ΠΊΡΠ΅Π΄ΠΈΡΠ°.
Π’Π°ΠΊΠΆΠ΅, ΠΌΠΎΠΆΠ½ΠΎ ΡΠΌΠ°Π»ΡΠ½ΡΡΡ ΠΎΠ± ΠΏΠ»Π°ΡΡΠΈΠΊΠΎΠ²ΡΡ
ΠΊΠ°Π½ΠΈΠΊΡΠ»Π°Ρ . ΠΡΠΎ Π²ΠΎΠ·ΠΌΠΎΠΆΠ½ΠΎΡΡΡ Π½ΠΈΠΊΠ°ΠΊ Π½Π΅ ΠΎΠΏΠ»Π°ΡΠΈΠ²Π°ΡΡ ΠΊΡΠ΅Π΄ΠΈΡ Π½Π΅ΠΊΠΎΡΠΎΡΠΎΠ΅ Π²ΡΠ΅ΠΌΡ.
ΠΠ΅ΡΠ΅Π΄ΠΊΠΎ ΠΎΠΊΠΎΠ»ΠΎ Π»ΠΈΠ·ΠΈΠ½Π³Π΅ ΠΈΡΠΏΠΎΠ»ΡΠ·ΡΡΡ ΡΡΡ ΡΡ Π΅ΠΌΡ.
Π Π°Π·ΡΠ΅ΡΠ΅Π½ΠΎ Π΄ΠΎΠ³ΠΎΠ²ΠΎΡΠΈΡΡΡΡ ΡΠΎΠ»ΡΠΊΠΎ ΠΎ ΠΊΡΠ΅Π΄ΠΈΡΠ½ΡΡ ΠΏΡΠΎΡΠ΅Π½ΡΠ°Ρ , ΠΈΠ»ΠΈ ΡΠΎΠ±ΡΠ°ΡΡ Π»ΠΈΡΠ½ΡΠΉ Π΄ΠΈΠ°Π³ΡΠ°ΠΌΠΌΠ° Π²ΡΠΏΠ»Π°Ρ.
ΠΡΠ΅ ΠΎΠ΄ΠΈΠ½ Π²ΠΈΠ΄ ΡΠ΅ΡΡΡΡΠΊΡΡΡΠΈΠ·Π°ΡΠΈΠΈ β ΡΡΠΎ ΠΏΠΎΠ»Π½ΠΎΠ΅ Π»ΠΈΠ±ΠΎ Π²ΡΠ±ΠΎΡΠΎΡΠ½ΠΎΠ΅ Π·Π°ΠΊΡΡΡΠΈΡ ΠΊΡΠ΅Π΄ΠΈΡΠ° ΡΠ°ΠΌΠΈΠΌ Π±Π°Π½ΠΊΠΎΠΌ.
Π’Π°ΠΊΠΎΠ²ΠΎΠΉ ΡΠ°Π·Π½ΠΎΠ²ΠΈΠ΄Π½ΠΎΡΡΡ ΠΈΡΠΏΠΎΠ»ΡΠ·ΡΡΡ Π² ΠΎΡΠ΅Π½Ρ ΡΠ΅Π΄ΠΊΠΈΡ ΡΠ»ΡΡΠ°ΡΡ .
Π§Π°ΡΠ΅ ΡΠΏΠΈΡΡΠ²Π°ΡΡ Π»ΠΈΡΡ Π²ΠΈΡΠ½ΡΠ΅ ΠΏΡΠΎΡΠ΅Π½ΡΡ ΠΈΠ·-Π·Π° ΠΏΡΠΎΡΡΡΠΎΡΠΊΡ ΠΎΠΏΠ»Π°ΡΡ.
2. Π Π΅ΡΠΈΠ½Π°Π½ΡΠΈΡΠΎΠ²Π°Π½ΠΈΠ΅ (ΠΏΠ΅ΡΠ΅ΠΊΡΠ΅Π΄ΠΈΡΠΎΠ²Π°Π½ΠΈΠ΅)
ΠΡΠΎ Π²ΠΎΠ·ΠΌΠΎΠΆΠ½ΠΎΡΡΡ Π²Π·ΡΡΡ Π½ΠΎΠ²ΡΠΉ Π°Π²ΡΠΎΡΠΈΡΠ΅Ρ Π² ΡΠ²ΠΎΠ΅ΠΌ ΠΈΠ»ΠΈ Π² ΠΈΠ½ΠΎΠΌ Π±Π°Π½ΠΊΠ΅ Π΄Π»Ρ Π·Π°ΠΊΡΡΡΠΈΡ ΡΡΠ°ΡΠΎΠ³ΠΎ ΠΊΡΠ΅Π΄ΠΈΡΠ°,
Π½Π° Π±ΠΎΠ»Π΅Π΅ ΠΏΡΠΈΠ±ΡΠ»ΡΠ½ΡΡ ΠΊΡΠΈΡΠ΅ΡΠΈΡΡ .
ΠΠΎΠ½Π°ΡΠ°Π»Ρ Π½Π΅ΠΎΠ±Ρ ΠΎΠ΄ΠΈΠΌΠΎ ΡΡΡΡΠ΅ΠΌΠΈΡΡΡΡ
Π² ΡΠΎΠ±ΡΡΠ²Π΅Π½Π½ΡΠΉ Π±Π°Π½ΠΊ ΠΎ ΡΡΠΎΠΌ ΠΏΡΠ΅Π΄ΠΏΠΈΡΠ°Π½ΠΈΠΈ, Π½ΠΎ
Π½ΠΈΠΊΠ°ΠΊ Π½Π΅ ΠΊΠ°ΠΆΠ΄ΡΠΉ Π±Π°Π½ΠΊ Ρ ΠΎΡΠ΅Ρ ΠΏΡΠΎΠ²ΠΎΠ΄ΠΈΡΡ ΡΠ΅ΡΠΈΠ½Π°Π½ΡΠΈΡΠΎΠ²Π°Π½ΠΈΠ΅ Π»ΠΈΡΠ½ΡΡ ΠΊΡΠ΅Π΄ΠΈΡΠΎΠ².
Π’ΠΎΠ³Π΄Π°, Π½Π°Π΄Π»Π΅ΠΆΠΈΡ Π½Π°ΠΉΡΠΈ ΠΏΠΎΠ΄Ρ ΠΎΠ΄ΡΡΠΈΠΉ Π±Π°Π½ΠΊ
Ρ Π»ΡΡΡΠΈΠΌΠΈ ΡΡΠ»ΠΎΠ²ΠΈΡΠΌΠΈ. Π‘Π΅ΠΉΡΠ°Ρ ΡΡΠ΅Π·Π²ΡΡΠ°ΠΉΠ½ΠΎ Π΄Π΅ΠΉΡΡΠ²ΡΡΡΠ°Ρ ΠΊΠΎΠ½ΠΊΡΡΠ΅Π½ΡΠ½ΡΡΡ ΡΡΠ΅Π΄ΠΈ Π±Π°Π½ΠΊΠΎΠ²ΡΠΊΠΈΡ ΡΡΡΠ΅ΠΆΠ΄Π΅Π½ΠΈΠΉ.
ΠΡΠΎΡΡΠΎ ΡΠ°Π·ΡΠ΅ΡΠ΅Π½ΠΎ Π½Π°ΠΉΡΠΈ ΠΊΡΠ΅Π΄ΠΈΡΠΎΡΠ°, ΠΊΠΎΡΠΎΡΡΠΉ ΡΠΎΠ³Π»Π°ΡΠΈΡΡΡ Π½Π° ΡΠ°ΠΊΡΡ ΠΎΠΏΠ΅ΡΠ°ΡΠΈΡ,
ΠΎΡΠ½ΠΎΠ²Π½ΠΎΠ΅, ΡΡΠΎΠ± Π±ΡΠ»Π° Ρ ΠΎΡΠΎΡΠ°Ρ ΠΊΡΠ΅Π΄ΠΈΡΠ½Π°Ρ Π΄Π΅ΡΠ½ΠΈΡ.
ΠΠΎΠ³Π°ΡΠΈΠ² ΡΡΠ°ΡΡΠΉ ΠΊΡΠ΅Π΄ΠΈΡ, Π·Π°ΠΈΠΌΠΎΠ΄Π°ΡΠ΅Π»Ρ Π΄ΠΎΠ»ΠΆΠ΅Π½ Π²ΡΠΏΠ»Π°ΡΠΈΠ²Π°ΡΡ Π½ΠΎΠ²Π΅ΠΉΡΠΈΠΉ, Π½ΠΎ ΡΠΆΠ΅
Ρ ΠΌΠ΅Π½ΡΡΠΈΠΌΠΈ ΠΏΡΠΎΡΠ΅Π½ΡΠ°ΠΌΠΈ.
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